Tuesday, 20 March 2012



 The standard or default format for saving spreadsheets is known as xls format because the file extension is .xls. However, in addition to the standard format for saving spreadsheets, there are a number of alternative formats you can use for different purposes.
These include:
    ·         PDF (Portable Document Format).
When you save a spreadsheet as a PDF it can be viewed but not edited by others. The PDF forat is very widely used, so it is ideal if you want to publish your spreadsheet online and allow anyone to down load and view it (even if they don’t have a copy of Microsoft Office).
        ·    HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language).
Saving your spreadsheet as HTML means you could include the spreadsheet as part of a web page. As with     PDF, your spreadsheet can be viewed but not edited in this format.
        ·   CSV (Comma Separated Values) file.
This is a text file with the contents of each cell separated by comma. This format can be used to import the spreadsheet data into a database application.
        ·     TXT file.
This is a plain text file.
        ·    XML file.
This is an industry standard format so is useful when you need to export spreadsheet data to other application (especially non-Microsoft ones) such as a database.
When you save your spreadsheet in any of these formats, the formulae are converted to values. This means you have created a final version of the spreadsheet.

What is the different way to connect computer network

Computer network there is any different types of system used to connect to computer. One of the most common way is via a dial-up connect. With a dial-up connection the internet user can connect to the internet via his or telephone line and internet service provider, this Method of connecting to the internet is generally

 Local area networks :(LAN) is a network that connects computers and devices in a limited geographical area such as home, school, computer laboratory, office building, or closely positioned group of buildings.

Most local area networks are built with relatively inexpensive hardware such as Ethernet cables, network adapters, and hubs. Wireless LAN and other more advanced LAN hardware options also exist.

Specialized operating system software may be used to configure a local area network. For example, most flavours of Microsoft Windows provide a software package called Internet Connection Sharing (ICS) that supports controlled access to LAN resources

Wide Area Networks: (WAN) are used for local area networks, where the computers are physically linked to each other. A network interface card (NIC) must be fitted to a personal computer before it can be connected through wires to local area net work .The most common type of NIC is an Ethernet card.

Wireless network:  transfer data without the use of cables or wires. Generally wireless connections are not as fast or as reliable as cables but they can be very convenient they are as increasingly popular technology for small network because the computers, especially laptops, can be moved around while remaining connected to the net work


Wired Network Connections:

Wired network connections can be defined as a jack in which we plug a network connection and hence a wired connection is established. Wired network connections are similar to the phone jacks except for the size. Network jacks are yellow and orange in colour. Wired network allows for the fast and easy access to the internet. All the wired networks are full duplex, switched.


Peer to peer Network: Peer-to-peer is a communications model in which each party has the same capabilities and either party can initiate a communication session. Other models with which it might be contrasted include the client/server model and the master/slave model. In some cases, peer-to-peer communications is implemented by giving each communication node both server and client capabilities. In recent usage, peer-to-peer has come to describe applications in which users can use the Internet to exchange files with each other directly or through a mediating server.

 by Hiwet Araya

Saturday, 17 March 2012

What is a PowerPoint and what you can do on it?

PowerPoint  PowerPoint is a software programs which is used to make presentations really attractive for the audience. It is an application which is often sold as part of the Microsoft Office suite. It allows you to produce slides intended for presentation to an audience. Each slide can include texts, images, animations, videos or sounds. You can produce a template or master slide' that contains common elements such as footers and headers. You may make your each slide from this master slides.

The following lest gives you a quick overview of what you can do in PowerPoint:
  •  When you create a presentation by using the PowerPoint what we can do is not limited, this program is made up from series of slides. The slides that you create by using the PowerPoint can also be presented as overhead transparencies or 35mm slides.
  • In addition, you can print audience handouts, outlines and speaker's notes to the slides.
  • You can format all the slides in a presentation using the powerful Slide Master which will be covered in the tutorial.
  • You can keep your entire presentation in a single file- all your slides, speaker's notes, and audience handouts.
  • You can import what you have created in other Microsoft products, such as Word and Excel into any of your slides. 

Friday, 16 March 2012

What is a logo?

What is a logo?

A logo is a symbol, a name, or trademark that represents a company and it is a simple representation and hopefully the most memorable aspect of a company. A logo is a great way to trigger memories of a particular brand. A logo is very important it is not the whole brand but at the end of the day people may forget the exact details of your website design. But a logo should be well exhibited to the viewer to be able to remember the logo of your company or logo of your website. If you think of logos like Nike and Apple these companies have such well made logos. For instance if somebody ask you to draw the Apple or the Nike tick logo you are able to do it straight from your memory and that is a part of good branding.

There is an example that explains more the logo

For instance you are crossing the road suddenly you see a poster of a beautiful woman drinking Coca cola and right below is a company name written. What will catches your eyes first, the woman or the Coca cola? Will definitely you see the woman and not even read what is written in the poster. The purpose of this example is said that a logo or pictures catches more attention than the text. People remember less the name but they remember the pictures and logos associated with the company. Logo helps in getting more customers. Look at all the big companies like Coco Cola, T-mobile, 3G, O2 and a lot more they have a symbol representing them. Just like a flag represent a country, a logo represents a company. That’s why all the successful companies have a logo associated with them.

What is a memo?

                                  What is a memo ?

A memo, also known as a memorandum, is a method for communication.Memos are commonly used for communicating at a place of work . Memo sent and received in offices, all over the world are used to communicate with the internal audience,that is the employees and so on, and not with the external audience such as suppliers,customers and many more. It's main purpose is to provide assistance to the memory by recording event such as a business meeting.


Wednesday, 14 March 2012

What is a Web server ?

                                    What is a Web server ?
A Web server is a computer that stores website on the Internet and delivers webpages on the Internet and delivers webpages to viewers on request. This service is referred to as web hosting. Every Web server has a unique address,called an Internet Protocol address, that tells other computers connected to the Internet where to find the server on the vast network. The Internet Protocol (IP) address looks something like this :69, 93, 141,146; This address links to a more human -friendly address such as http://www.carley.com/ Web hosts rent out space on their web servers for people or businnesses to set up their own websites,and the web server allocates a unique website address to each website it hosts.

Tuesday, 13 March 2012

What lies beneath the Index...

When regular content becomes “too mainstream”.

We know it – everyone uses the Internet. Facebook, YouTube, Twitter are just a few websites people access every day. The time spent on these websites sometimes may go up to many hours on a single day. But that’s exactly where usual user’s concert reaches its end. Truth is: Google does not have all the answers, Facebook doesn’t know all the people and 4chan is not the only website that may scar you for life.
Behind the cover hides what’s sometimes called “Invisible Internet” also known as the Deep Web. So, first of all...

What is the Deep Web?

Good question! For short, the Deep Web consists of non-indexed web pages. In other words, the regular web search engines, such as Google, Yahoo cannot use their bots (crawlers) to access those web pages because of some reasons.
This video gives a brief explanation of what's the deep web.

So what does this Deep Web consist of then??

Okay, so what do you usually see on Facebook?Twitter? Or in summary - all the surface web? Well, it's nothing more than comments, discussions, blog posts, bookmarks, quotations and that's pretty much it.
Now, Deep Web has something more. For example, if you wanted to start a new business, the answer on how to do it is there... but you won't find it! Not really.
The Deep Web holds data created by databases (Access, Oracle, MySQL, SQL Server), non-text multimedia files, such as PDFs, images, software, etc., some content from subscription-based websites. Doesn't look impressive? The information held on databases has no rules, it could be absolutely anything, starting with laws and ending with full articles.

Okay, it's cool. But how do I get ALL this information then?

- Try to figure out the information that might be stored in the database and search for it.
- Use vertical search engines to access the content.

Mining the deep web is a subtle thing and it makes it more interesting at least 10 times.

So, thank you for reading and good luck exploring what lies down there.

Some of the ways to connect to a computer network.

A computer network is a collection of computers and their hardware components interconnected to each other electronically. Each computer can share resources, information and send or receive data with other computers in the same network. The speed of connection is faster than a normal connection to the Internet. There are various types of networks based on the medium used to transport the data, scale, communications protocol used, topology and organizational scope. There are different ways to connect to a computer network. Some of them are below:

Personal area network
It’s a personal computer network that is used to communicate among computers and devices that are close to a person. Computer, scanner, fax machine are some of the examples. It could be wired or wireless.

Local area network
It’s a network that is used to connect computer and devices in a particular local area. The network connection at home, library are examples of LAN.

Home network
It’s a residential local area network used to communicate between home digital devices and personal computer, such as scanners, printers and mobile computing devices. An internet can be shared through a cable TV or Digital Subscriber Line provider.

Campus network
It’s a computer network within an area built by interconnection of local area networks. It is usually owned by college/university. The networking equipments and transmission media are all owned by the specific college/university. The network is linked to various computers within the campus territory.

Metropolitan area network
It is a network that covers vast amount of computers in a specific geographical area. The large computer network can be connected to a city, or a country.

Wide area network
It’s a broad computer network that covers a large geographical area.  It can cover an entire country; communicate long distances, or even intercontinental distances.
The devices can be interconnected with devices in wide distance in this network.

Enterprise private network
It’s a network usually built by a company/enterprise to interconnect various company sites for its purposes.
It is usually private network interconnected with different devices of the same company.

It’s a network built by connecting multiple computer network using routers.
The numbers of routers are used to built a multiple computer network.

Jetman Flight at Grand Canyon West

Ever wanted to fly like a bird?

Yves Rossy nicknamed 'Jetman' was the first person to fly  a jet engine-powered wings. He developed and built a system comprising a back pack with semi-rigid aeroplane-type carbon-fiber wings with a span of about 2.4 metres (7.9 ft), powered by four attached Jet-Cat P200 jet engines  modified from large-model, kerosene fueled, aircraft engines. His first flight occurred in November 2006 in Bex, lasting nearly six minutes and nine seconds. He flew over some places. On 5 November 2010, he flew a new version of his jet-powered flight system and successfully performed 2 aerial loops before landing via parachute. He launched from a hot air balloon  at 2,400 meters (7,900 feet) and flew a total of 18 minutes before landing. The wingspan of Rossy's latest craft has been reduced to 2m. He says that the suit with the jet engine-powered wings attached will be available for human to fly in near future. Isn't that amazing? I cant wait to get my hands on them and fly like a bird.

Monday, 5 March 2012


The hardware used in organisations can be worth many hundreds of thousands of pounds. If any of it is damages or stolen then it may take a while to replace it. The cost of replacement will usually be covered by insurance, so the main problem will be the delay in installing replacement hardware. The delay can mean that business is lost and the company will lose money.

Threats to data stored on a computer
 ICT systems have to be protected from a number of threats. Someone may access a system illegally in order to read sensitive information and, even though they may not cause any damage to the system, they may create all kinds of problems to the organisation. Worse still, they may actually change data or even delete it.

The main aims of security are:
To maintain the system as intended
To protect the system from unauthorised changes being made to the software or data
To protect the system from both accidental and deliberate illegal access
To detect successful and unsuccessful attempts at illegal access
To provide a means of recovery if things go wrong.

Computer Viruses

Viruses are a small computer program that can cause damaged to a computer system. Viruses can cause a lot of damage to software, by deleting and altering programs and data. They can be spread from one computer to another through a network system, or on disks.

 Media failure

If a disk becomes damaged then the data stored on it may be lost. This can be true of fixed hard disks as well as all the removable media. It is sometimes possible to recover data from a disk, even if some of it has been corrupted. But to protect against the loss of data, all disks should be backed up regularly.

Back up procedures

 The main aim of security is to maintain the system hardware and software as intended. So if things do go wrong it is important to be able to re create the system that existed before the damage was done.
It is far more difficult to replace data. But if proper backup procedures have been followed then the data can be copied from the backups and the system can revert to how it was before.

Thursday, 1 March 2012

How does the Web Work?

What Hardware and Software do you need to be able to connect to and use the Internet?

Before you can connect to the Internet and access the World Wide Web, you must have certain equipments as follow:
·         A computer,
·         A modem and access to a telephone line or a local area network (LAN),
·         An Internet browser and software to connect you to the ISP,
·         And finally an account with an Internet Service Provider (ISP).
These things work together to establish a connection to the internet and allow the access to the web.

First of all the computer is essential, next the modem is necessary if you are using a telephone line to access the internet. It translates the language that computers talk into a language that can travel across the phone lines, and vice versa. Two lots of software are also needed to connect you to the internet. The first is the software that connects you to your ISP and the second is a browser. Browsers go and get web pages and display them on your computer. The two most popular and commonly used are Mozilla Firefox and Google Chrome. Finally the ISP provides you with an account that you will pay monthly or yearly in return for accessing the internet through the ISP. This account will come with a user name and a password that you use to log on to the internet.

Simple diagram of connection to the internet via a modem and telephone
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